# Resolutions

Functions for creating free resolutions of modules and ideals in Singular.jl return a special Singular object of type `sresolution{T}`

. The support in Singular.jl for this type primarily exists to allow interaction with such resolutions. Free resolutions can have the property of being minimal, which is specified by the `minimal`

field of the `sresolution{T}`

type.

Resolution objects have a parent object which represents the set of resolutions they belong to, the data for which is given by the polynomial ring $R$ over which the modules in the resolution are defined.

The types of resolutions and associated parent objects are given in the following table according to the library providing them.

Library | Element type | Parent type |
---|---|---|

Singular | `sresolution{T}` | `Singular.ResolutionSet{T}` |

These types are parameterised by the type of elements in the polynomial ring $R$ over which the modules belonging to the resolution are defined.

All resolution types belong directly to the abstract type `SetElem`

and all the resolution set parent object types belong to the abstract type `Set`

.

## Resolution functionality

Singular.jl resolutions implement standard operations one would expect on all AbstractAlgebra compatible objects. These include:

- Operations common to all AbstractAlgebra objects, such as
`parent`

,`base_ring`

,`elem_type`

,`parent_type`

,`parent`

,`deepcopy`

, etc.

Below, we describe all of the functionality for Singular.jl resolutions that is not included in this list of basic operations.

### Constructors

There are currently two ways to create resolutions in Singular.jl: They can either be created by taking the free resolution of an ideal or module over a polynomial ring, as described in the relevant sections of the documentation, or they can be created by the following constructor:

`Singular.Resolution`

— Method`Resolution(C::Vector{smodule{T}}) where T <: AbstractAlgebra.RingElem`

Create a new resolution whose maps are given by the elements of an array C of modules. Note that it is not checked that the maps are actually composable and that their pairwise composition is the zero map, that is, that the created resolution is a complex.

**Example**

```
julia> R, (x, y) = polynomial_ring(QQ, ["x", "y"])
(Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(x,y),(dp(2),C), spoly{n_Q}[x, y])
julia> M1 = Singular.Module(R, vector(R, x), vector(R, y))
Singular Module over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(x,y),(dp(2),C), with Generators:
x*gen(1)
y*gen(1)
julia> M2 = Singular.Module(R, vector(R, y, -x))
Singular Module over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(x,y),(dp(2),C), with Generators:
-x*gen(2)+y*gen(1)
julia> F = Resolution([M1, M2]);
julia> F[1]
Singular Module over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(x,y),(dp(2),C), with Generators:
x*gen(1)
y*gen(1)
julia> F[2]
Singular Module over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(x,y),(dp(2),C), with Generators:
-x*gen(2)+y*gen(1)
```

Alternatively, resolutions can be refined to minimal resolutions, as described below.

Other than this, there are currently no additional ways to create resolutions in Singular.jl.

### Basic manipulation

`Base.length`

— Method`length(r::sresolution)`

Return the length of the resolution. This is what is mathematically meant by the length of a resolution. Over a field, this should be at most the number of variables in the polynomial ring.

Singular.jl overloads the `getindex`

function so that one can access the modules in a resolution $F$.

`F[n::Int]`

**Examples**

```
julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = polynomial_ring(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"])
(Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C), spoly{n_Q}[w, x, y, z])
julia> I = Ideal(R, w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
Singular ideal over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C) with generators (w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
julia> F = fres(std(I), 0)
Singular Resolution:
R^1 <- R^5 <- R^6 <- R^2
julia> n = length(F)
3
julia> M1 = F[1]
Singular ideal over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C) with generators (y^2 - w*z, x*y - z^2, x^2 - w*y, w*x - y*z, w^2 - x*z)
```

### Betti numbers

`Singular.betti`

— Method`betti(r::sresolution)`

Return the Betti numbers, i.e. the ranks of the free modules in the given free resolution. These are returned as a Julia array of `Int`

s. Note that the output of this command is useful only in the graded case.

**Examples**

```
julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = polynomial_ring(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"])
(Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C), spoly{n_Q}[w, x, y, z])
julia> I = Ideal(R, w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
Singular ideal over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C) with generators (w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
julia> F = fres(std(I), 3)
Singular Resolution:
R^1 <- R^5 <- R^6 <- R^2
julia> M = minres(F)
Singular Resolution:
R^1 <- R^5 <- R^5 <- R^1
julia> B = betti(M)
3×4 Matrix{Int32}:
1 0 0 0
0 5 5 0
0 0 0 1
```

### Minimal resolutions

`Singular.minres`

— Method`minres{T <: Nemo.FieldElem}(r::sresolution{spoly{T}})`

Return a minimal free resolution, given any free resolution. In the graded case, there exists a uniquely determined minimal resolution. If the supplied resolution is already minimal, it may be returned without making a copy.

**Examples**

```
julia> R, (w, x, y, z) = polynomial_ring(QQ, ["w", "x", "y", "z"])
(Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C), spoly{n_Q}[w, x, y, z])
julia> I = Ideal(R, w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
Singular ideal over Singular Polynomial Ring (QQ),(w,x,y,z),(dp(4),C) with generators (w^2 - x*z, w*x - y*z, x^2 - w*y, x*y - z^2, y^2 - w*z)
julia> F = fres(std(I), 3)
Singular Resolution:
R^1 <- R^5 <- R^6 <- R^2
julia> M = minres(F)
Singular Resolution:
R^1 <- R^5 <- R^5 <- R^1
```